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A group of letters forms words. A group of words forms sentences. The words in a sentence are classified under eight classes. The eight classes are called ‘PARTS OF SPEECH’. Here in this article we are going to learn about the 8 parts of speech with examples.
A noun is a word or phrase that refers to a person, place, thing or an event.
Kinds of Nouns
i. Proper Nouns
The names of the particular people, places or things.
- John likes eating sweets. (People: John)
- Radha live in Chennai. (Place: Chennai)
ii. Common Noun
Common noun refers to a person or place in general (not to a particular person or thing).
- Doctor asked to drink a lot of water.
- We lived in a big city.
- Fathers encourage their kids to play in the evening.
iii. Collective Nouns
A collective noun is the name of collection/group of people, animals or things of the same kind.
- The team took its decision.
- A group of people fought for the justice.
iv. Material Noun
A material noun refers to a material.
- The plastic chair is broken.
- Cotton dress is cheap.
- I purchased a gold ring.
- The child drank milk.
- Iron is very useful metal.
v. Abstract Noun
An abstract noun denotes an idea, event, quality or a concept.
- I love cooking.
- Raju hates Chinese food.
- I admired the beauty of the nature.
- Sheela has a great taste for colours.
- She gets angers too quickly.
- We have faith in God.
The nouns can be categorized in to: “countable” and “uncountable” nouns.
vi. Countable Nouns
Nouns that can be counted are called countable nouns.
- I eat an apple every day.
- There are few elephants in England.
- There six dogs in the room.
- I have got many pens.
vii. Uncountable Nouns
Nouns that cannot be counted are called uncountable nouns.
A noun used in answer to the question ‘How much?’ is called ‘Uncountable Noun’.
Words: milk, sand, water, ink, sugar, butter, physics, soap, mathematics, air, homework, meat, news, oil, money, food, advertising, politics.
- Can I have some water?
- Pour some milk.
Points to REMEMBER
- Common and collective nouns are usually countable.
- Material and abstract nouns are uncountable.
- Food, money, sand, meat etc., may be used as countable to indicate different types.
- Time can be used as both countable and uncountable noun.
A pronoun is used as a substitute for noun or noun phrase. It is used to avoid the repetition of nouns or noun phrases.
- Suresh went to the market because Suresh wanted to buy a pen.
It can be written as: Suresh went to the market because he wanted to buy a pen.
- Walking is a form of exercise. Walking is easier than swimming.
It can be written as: Walking is a form of exercise. It is easier than swimming.
Kinds of Pronouns
i. Personal Pronouns
I, we, you, he, she, it, they are called personal pronouns. They can be classified into First, Second and Third person pronouns.
- I bought a kilo of apple.
- She is writing her assignments.
ii. Possessive Pronouns
- My, our, your, his, her, their, its (determiners)
- Mine, ours, yours, his, theirs, its (predicative use)
They are used to express ownership/profession/relationships.
- This is my room.
- The room is mine.
iii. Reciprocal Pronouns
Each other and one another are used to express mutual relationships.
- The children can help each other to do the homework.
iv. Demonstrative Pronouns
This, that, these and those are used to point to people or things they stand for.
- This is our car.
- That is our old house.
v. Reflective Pronouns
Myself, ourselves, yourself/selves, himself, herself, themselves and itself are used as reflexive pronouns.
- Rani smiled at Rani in the mirror.
It can be written as: Rani smiled at herself in the mirror.
vi. Relative Pronouns
Who, whom, which, what and that are relative pronouns that refer to nouns or pronouns.
- I don’t know who is standing at the gate.
vii. Emphatic Pronouns
Used for emphasis.
- Mary herself typed all the letters.
viii. Interrogative Pronouns
Who, whom, whose, which and what are interrogative pronouns.
Note: Relative and interrogative are identical, but their functions are different.
- Who are you?
- Who are you talking about?
An adjective describes or gives additional information about a noun.
- Malathi and Shanthi are beautiful. (Beautiful describes Malathi and Shanthi.)
- We study in big school. (Big says about the school.)
Kinds of Adjectives
i. Adjectives of Quality
It is used to describe the quality of person or thing.
- Hari is a smart boy.
- The weather is cold.
ii. Adjectives of quantity
It shows the quantity of a thing and answers the questions ‘how much?’
- I have got some money.
- There is little water in the jug.
- All his life he worked hard.
iii. Adjectives of Number
It indicates the number of persons or things or their order. It can be classified into two types, namely Definite Adjectives and Indefinite Numeral Adjectives.
Definite numeral adjectives are used to denote the exact number.
- Shehas two cars.
- I am the third daughter in my family.
Indefinite numeral adjectives do not indicate the exact number.
- Several students were there.
- Many attend the party.
iv. Distributive Adjectives
They are used to refer to each one of the number.
- Either of them can do it.
- Neither of the statements is true.
v. Demonstrative Adjectives
They point out the thing or things.
- This pen is better than that.
- That car is mine.
vi. Interrogative Adjectives
Interrogative Adjectives are used to ask question.
- What work did you do yesterday?
- Which pen do you like the best?
vii. Possessive Adjectives
Possessive pronouns function as possessive adjectives.
A verb is a word or group of words that states an action, or a happening, a fact or a state of being. It is an important part of a sentence.
- Mary is a doctor. (fact/state of being)
- Yesterday it rained heavily. (happening)
Verbs can be classified into main verbs and auxiliary verbs.
Verbs that can stand by themselves and convey a meaning are called main verbs.
Action verbs – drink, run, play, swim, dance.
- Rama drinks juice every morning.
- Mohan plays tennis on Sundays.
Linking verbs – Am, is, are, was, were, be, been.
- Roja is a teacher.
- Usha and mala were good friends.
Helping verbs – is dancing, are reading.
An auxiliary verb is used to help a main verb in expressing the progress of an action or a fact or happening.
- Sita is dancing at a concert.
- Rama is reading an interesting novel.
Kinds of verbs
i. Transitive Verb
A transitive verb is a verb that passes the action of the doer to the object.
- I wrote a letter to my friend.
- She drinks Boost in the morning.
ii. Intransitive verb
An intransitive verb is a verb that does not pass the action of the subject to the object.
- Some trees grow very tall.
- She laughs heartily.
An adverb gives additional information about a verb or another adverb or an adjective or other phrase.
An adverb answers the questions “when, how and where”.
Kinds of Adverbs
i. Adverb of Time
Adverbs of time answer the question ‘When’.
- We bought a flat last year.
- I generally watch English movies.
- He usually drinks milk at night.
ii. Adverb of Place
Adverb of place answers the question ‘where’.
- The boll rolled down.
- She saw me in the market.
- Let us wait here.
iii. Adverb of manner
It answers the question ‘how’.
- She spoke gently.
- They behaved nicely.
- She danced beautifully.
iv. Adverb of frequency
It tells us ‘how often’.
- She always asks for books.
- The newspaper is published daily.
- The often meet.
A preposition is word placed before a noun or pronoun to show its relation to another word in the same sentence. A preposition is also used with a verb.
- The cat is under the table.
- I gave a chocolate to him.
- The ball is in the shelf.
Kinds of prepositions
Simple preposition consists of only one word.
- In, at, since, for.
ii. Complex or compound
It consists of more than one word.
- As for, in spite of, due to.
A conjunction is a word that joins two word, phrases or sentences together.
The word ‘and’ is a very commonly used conjunction.
Conjunction list: but, because, or, as, when, while, yet, though, if, unless, until, since, so.
- Ramu failed in the exam though he studied well.
- Raja and Roja are good friends.
- I saw a snake while I am sitting in Nature Park.
An interjection is a word that expresses a sudden emotional feeling. It is always followed by an exclamatory mark (!). Interjection usually comes at the beginning of the sentence.
- Hello! How do you do?
- Oh! What a great shot.
- Hush! Someone is coming.
- Alas! He has fallen.
Hope, this article about the 8 Part of Speech is very helpful to you. Your queries are welcome.Follow me in social medias